Posts tagged History
Posts tagged History
Geraldine Hoff Doyle, was a 17 years (in 1942) while she was working at the American Broach & Machine Co. when a photographer snapped a pic of her on the job.
That image used by J. Howard Miller for the “We Can Do It!” poster, released during World War II.
Oh shit, that’s the real “Rosie the Riveter” ?
BAMF INDEED. This woman deserves all the respect in the universe!
And now you know…
The real “Lone Ranger,” it turns out, was an African American man named Bass Reeves, who the legend was based upon. Perhaps not surprisingly, many aspects of his life were written out of the story, including his ethnicity. The basics remained the same: a lawman hunting bad guys, accompanied by a Native American, riding on a white horse, and with a silver trademark.
Historians of the American West have also, until recently, ignored the fact that this man was African American, a free black man who headed West to find himself less subject to the racist structure of the established Eastern and Southern states.
While historians have largely overlooked Reeves, there have been a few notable works on him. Vaunda Michaux Nelson’s book, Bad News for Outlaws: The Remarkable Life of Bass Reeves, Deputy U.S. Marshal, won the 2010 Coretta Scott King Award for best author. Arthur Burton released an overview of the man’s life a few years ago. Black Gun, Silver Star: The Life and Legend of Frontier Marshal Bass Reeves recounts that Reeves was born into a life of slavery in 1838. His slave-keeper brought him along as another personal servant when he went off to fight with the Confederate Army, during the Civil War.
Reeves took the chaos that ensued during the war to escape for freedom, after beating his “master” within an inch of his life, or according to some sources, to death. Perhaps the most intruiging thing about this escape was that Reeves only beat his enslaver after the latter lost sorely at a game of cards with Reeves and attacked him.
After successfully defending himself from this attack, he knew that there was no way he would be allowed to live if he stuck around.
Reeves fled to the then Indian Territory of today’s Oklahoma and lived harmoniously among the Seminole and Creek Nations of Native American Indians.
After the Civil War finally concluded, he married and eventually fathered ten children, making his living as a Deputy U.S. Marshall in Arkansas and the Indian Territory. If this surprises you, it should, as Reeves was the first African American to ever hold such a position.
Burton explains that it was at this point that the Lone Ranger story comes in to play. Reeves was described as a “master of disguises”. He used these disguises to track down wanted criminals, even adopting similar ways of dressing and mannerisms to meet and fit in with the fugitives, in order to identify them.
Reeves kept and gave out silver coins as a personal trademark of sorts, just like the Lone Ranger’s silver bullets. Of course, the recent Disney adaptation of the Lone Ranger devised a clever and meaningful explanation for the silver bullets in the classic tales. For the new Lone Ranger, the purposes was to not wantonly expend ammunition and in so doing devalue human life. But in the original series, there was never an explanation given, as this was simply something originally adapted from Reeves’ personal life and trademarking of himself. For Reeves, it had a very different meaning, he would give out the valuable coins to ingratiate himself to the people wherever he found himself working, collecting bounties. In this way, a visit from the real “Lone Ranger” meant only good fortune for the town: a criminal off the street and perhaps a lucky silver coin.
Like the Lone Ranger, Reeves was also expert crack shot with a gun. According to legend, shooting competitions had an informal ban on allowing him to enter. Like the Lone Ranger, Reeves rode a white horse throughout almost all of his career, at one point riding a light grey one as well.
Like the famed Lone Ranger legend Reeves had his own close friend like Tonto. Reeves’ companion was a Native American posse man and tracker who he often rode with, when he was out capturing bad guys. In all, there were close to 3000 of such criminals they apprehended, making them a legendary duo in many regions.
The final proof that this legend of Bass Reeves directly inspired into the story of the Lone Ranger can be found in the fact that a large number of those criminals were sent to federal prison in Detroit. The Lone Ranger radio show originated and was broadcast to the public in 1933 on WXYZ in Detroit where the legend of Reeves was famous only two years earlier.
Of course, WXYZ and the later TV and movie adaptions weren’t about to make the Lone Ranger an African American who began his career by beating a slave-keeper to death. But now you know. Spread the word and let people know the real legend of the Lone Ranger.
How many women can you guess? Do you remember/know what each one of them did/discovered?
Once you make your guess, head over to All Science, All the Time to see if you were right:http://ow.ly/pXjrG
Oh wow, that’s AN AWESOME LIST OF WHITE WOMEN SCIENTISTS! But how could you forget:
Asima Chatterjee: The awesome Indian woman who help discover drugs we use to treat cancer, malaria, and epilepsy!
Chien-Shiung Wu: THE FIRST LADY OF PHYSICS?!
Ellen Ochoa: The first Latina in SPACE! AND the First Latina Director of the Johnson Space Center.
Oo, and don’t forget!!
Flossie Wong-Staal: The woman that successfully map HIV and pave the way to prove that HIV causes AIDS.
Mae Jemison: First Black woman IN SPACE!!! And worked the first flight into space after the Challenger Accident.
But don’t stop!
Patricia Bath: The First Black woman doctor awarded a patent for a medical device: a laser that removes cataracts! (Fancy that!)
AND THE BOSSEST!
Shirley Ann Jackson: The first Black woman to earn a PhD from MIT in nuclear physics.
Hot damn! Women of Color in Science!!!
reblogging solely for the criticisms and shade.
I’m fucking cackling
smh the world stay tryna forget about us. BUT WE’RE STILL HERE CREATING AND INNOVATING THO
Jacket. 1880, Bosnia. Silk velvet, embroidered with metal thread, trimmed with silk chiffon and lined with silk damask, Victoria & Albert Museum
I HAVE A MIGHTY NEED.
BIG PHOTOSETS FOREVER FOR THEY ARE MUCH HARDER TO IGNORE / a lot of these don’t have hi-res versions available, but i still want to post them
This was not an exaggeration. The government ignored the issue of HIV/AIDS for years before anything was done. Gay and Queer communities had to form their own clinics because no government agencies cared for them. Back then, being diagnosed was equivalent to a death sentence or extreme debt and poor quality of life/a significantly shortened lifespan.
Things got so desperate that people literally had “Die-Ins”— in contemporary usage this refers to masses of people simulating death in order to protest something (like the War in Iraq). In this case, however, fatally sick people would literally lie down in public places and protest with what little energy they had left until they died. There is some footage of a church Die-In in the documentary Beyond Stonewall. The middle image here of that person’s jacket is not an extreme political statement; it’s what people had to do because they had no other options.
queer politics aren’t all hrc t-shirts and shiny lobbying. So many people have already forgotten this extremely recent history.
IMPERIAL RUSSIA MEME: 1 /3 Fashion Trend/Styles - Imperial Court Dress
The exquisite traditional dress worn by the Russian aristocracy is both great in artistic value and something of an icon.
Until the coronation of Peter I (the Great), the court of Muscovy was known for its sartorial splendor and the isolation in which it developed. Russians had inherited a religious and exotic legacy from Byzantium, and so the clothes of the Russian court were still the rich silks of the east; long robes heavily embroidered and sewn with pearls and precious gems. But when Peter took the throne, he immediately introduced Westernization to Russia, moving the capital to Saint Petersburg on the edge of the great Neva river, and with it, abolishing the ancient modes of dress and manners of living that had marked the Muscovite court.
At his new court in St. Petersburg, Peter the Great first introduced the popular German and Austrian fashions of the Western world, before the great French styles found its way into Russian culture- through fabric merchants and engravings. French fever caught on, and soon overtook the somewhat outdated previous styles. During the reign of Catherine the Great, the wide hooped skirts and tall wigs were the standard by all other fashions set.
But by the 1830’s, this excessive French design was deemed inappropriate. Emperor Nicholas I had had enough, and felt the need to see unity among the women of his court. As part of his vast efforts to distinguish and organize the ranks of the court Nicholas I and Count M.M. Speransky published the Code of Laws of the Russian Empire in 1833. This massive set of laws incorporated everything pertaining to the Empire, including the Edict on Court Dress. The edict specified that women at the Russian court were to wear “Russian Dress Uniforms”: Paradnaya Plat’e.
This was initially described as “a white embroidered silk gown, with an embroidered velvet overdress with long, open sleeves in the Muscovite style." The skirts were rouched and fastened at the waist, held together by a gold cord. The skirt was bell-like and full, the sleeves slightly puffed at the shoulders. This was a combination of the current "Romantic" style of fashion, and the ancient Russian style, and its usage became law.
These dresses were extraordinarily complicated and heavy, the bodices were tightly boned. The dress trains were interlined and reinforced to support the great weight of the gold embroidery. Though pieces of art in their own right, the dresses were unwieldy, and women of the court began to refer to dressing for Court occasions as “putting on the armor.”
The court gowns were also very expensive. In 1885, a gown ordered by Princess Zenaida Yusupova was 1500 roubles (the Faberge Imperial Egg of 1888 cost the same), and this gown would have been nowhere near as expensive as one ordered for a member of the Imperial Family. The dresses took anywhere from 6-8 months to complete, and so, the embroidered panels for the sleeves, train, and bodice were often executed in advance, and stored flat. Women would arrive at the dressmaker, choose the panels which suited her taste, position, and financial state, and the dress would be assembled, boned, and finished for her, just like any other dress shop. The dresses were frequently returned for repairs and alterations, and were sometimes sent to be cleaned as well.
While other courts moved on, changing and adapting the dress of their courts, Russia stayed firmly in its Slavic historical mode, the gowns becoming iconic and a symbol of pride for the Russian women from 1834 until 1917. Russian women stood out in foreign courts, and at home they made a unforgettable impression on visitors and natives.
The Soviet period saw the end of not only the wearing of court attire, but the virtual extinction of the Russian art of embroidery. Many of the women who were capable of this type of embroidery fled the revolution, and moved to France, where they were eagerly employed by couturiers such as Patou, Lanvin, and Chanel.
Because it seemed like a thing that might be useful.
The 18th century was a rowdy, rowdy time on a personal level. A huge amount of popular misconcepetions about the era come filtered to us through the Victorians, who spent a whole lot of time cataloguing - and in the process, rewriting and censoring - history. Even the Victorians were nowhere nearly as prudish as Victorian revisionism would have us believe.
Our man Ichabod came of age in the 1760s and 1770s in England, and we know he was a miitary man. So what sort of thing would he have been exposed to in his formative years?
Condoms, for one thing. Made of lambskin, linen or silk, reusable (hopefully after you washed it), and used with prostitutes to prevent the spread of syphilis. They were porous, so not much good at all at preventing pregnancy.
In order to actually prevent pregnancy, since no woman of good repute would ever use a condom with her husband, couples used withdrawal, the rhythm method, spermicides applied internally (including olive oil, cedar oil, or frankincense). The most common and most effective was an internal device called a pessary. An organic base (sometimes moss, sometimes other things - citrus rind was popular) was mixed with honey and sodium carbonate, and inserted like we would use a tampon today. This blocked the cervix to prevent conception.
They cursed, and not at all in the ‘vile son of a misbegotten goat’ sort of way we associate with Shakespeare. The word ‘fuck’ has been around since at least 1475, and used the same way we use it now. The first written record of the phrase ‘I’d not give a fuck’ is from 1790.
Prostitution of varying sorts was extremely common, from kept mistresses and exceptionally expensive courtesans, to bawdy houses, brothels and streetwalkers, women and men of all sorts plied the oldest trade.
"By the 1770s it was reported that the streets were ‘more thronged’ with prostitutes than every before. Attempts by Sir John Fielding, the Lord Mayor London, to suppress the trade came to nothing in the 1780s, but over the next 50 years concern began to emerge about morality, venereal diseases, public order and the kidnapping of virgin children to supply the ever-growing demand.
"Sir John Fielding, the magistrate, called Covent Garden ‘the great square of Venus’. He said, ‘One would imagine that all the prostitutes in the kingdom had picked upon the rendezvous’"
When a fellow had some extra cash and a fancied a bit of fun, he only had to look in his handy pocket guide to local prostitutes to see which girl might be best suited for what he wanted, who was any good, and what services he could afford. Harris’s List of Covent Garden Ladies was essentially Yelp for London Call Girls, published annually between 1757 -1795, and sold in the thousands.
Oh, and did you know there was a thriving gay community in London in the 18th century? Sodomy was still illegal, of course, but for the most part the men were left alone. There were famous drag queens, gay bars (called ‘molly houses’), same-sex couples participating in secret marriage ceremonies with each other, common cruising grounds, and culturally-specific slang terms of their own.
They liked buttsex without lube.
Since I have bugger’d human arse, I find
Pintle to Cunt is not so much inclin’d.
What tho the letchery be dry, ‘t is smart;
A Turkish arse I love with all my heart.
— King Bolloxinion in the Earl of Rochester’s play Sodom, or The Quintessence of Debauchery (1684)
In fact, just about the only thing that the 18th century English were dubious about was… oral sex.
Also called ‘gamahauching,’ oral (blow jobs and eating out alike) was taboo, and viewed as suspect and dirty. Think of how a lot of people view rimming today - some folks say “dude, you don’t know what you’re missing!” but the majority reaction is more along the lines of “you want me to put my tongue where??”
It was ‘well-known,’ in fact, that oral sex was a lewd practice and a foreign vice, that had only been brought across to England by those wild and sexually uncontrolled Americ…
Katrina, you vixen.
I think someone had a very exciting wedding night.
OH MY GOD
Incoming mail (tablet 346) is also revealing: ‘I have sent you … pairs of socks from Sattua, two pairs of sandals and two pairs of underpants.’ It was obviously a bit cold for soldiers on the north-west frontier of the Roman Empire.
THE SOCKS ARE STILL THERE:
I JUST CANNOT…I HAD NO CLUE ABOUT ANY OF THIS.
THEY JUST KEEP FINDING THEM:
40,000+ ROMAN SOLDIERS IN SCOTLAND: WE’RE FREEZING PLEASE SEND MORE SOCKS.
THIS IS THE BEST WRONG I’VE EVER BEEN.
THE SOCKS THO. Romans had some big/skinny feet.
ETA: but now I can say that socks and sandals are part of my cultural heritage. \o/
Although this link it to a Cracked article, all citations are academic sources.
Every link is to a PDF textbook. :) In fact, a lot of Cracked’s historical articles are quite well-sourced.
Medieval kids’ doodles on birch bark
Here’s something very special. In the 1950s archeologists made a great discovery near the city of Novgorod, Russia: they dug up hundreds of pieces of birch bark with all sorts of texts written on them. The 915 items are mostly letters, notes and receipts, all written between the 11th and 15th century. Among the more notable scraps is a marriage proposal from a man called Mikita to his beloved Anna: “marry me - I want you and you want me, and the witness to that is Ignat Moiseev” (item 377).
The most special items, however, are the ones shown above, which are from a medieval classroom. In the 13th century, young schoolboys learning to write filled these scraps with alphabets and short texts. Bark was ideal material for writing down things with such a short half-life. Then the pupils got bored and started to doodle, as kids do: crude drawings of individuals with big hands, as well as a figure with a raised sword standing next to a defeated beast (lower image). The last one was drawn by Onfim, who put his name next to the victorious warrior. The snippets provide a delightful and most unusual peek into a 13th-century classroom, with kids learning to read - and getting bored in the process.
More information - On the scraps in general, see here. Here is a full inventory, in Russian. On the excavation, see here and here. More kids’ doodles here and here. Some letters in this Flickr stream. The Leiden scholar Jos Schaeken published a book in Dutch on this material, which can be downloaded for free here (English translation to follow next year).